Families and Work: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century
Scharlach, PhD inducted in Fellow. David T. Takeuchi, PhD. Neil Gilbert, PhD. This theory is the one most often contrasted with spillover Zedeck It hypothesizes that there is an inverse relationship between work and family such that work and non-work experiences tend to be antithetical. It further proposes that individuals make differential investments of themselves in the two settings Champoux , so that what is provided by one makes up for what is missing in the other Evans and Bartolome Deprivations experienced in work are made up or compensated for in nonwork activities.
Interactive model. The interactive model "recognizes the mutual interdependence between family and work systems, taking into account the reciprocal influences of work and family and acknowledging their independent as well as their joint effects, directly and indirectly, on the psychological state and social conditions of individuals" Chow and Berheide , p. Analyses utilizing the interactive model to describe system interdependence between family and work can be divided into two main types—Marxist and non-Marxist.
Marxists treat family and work as economic units and study their linkages to the larger economy. Non-Marxists tend to see family and work as social systems or structural units and examine the specific circumstances under which occupational and familial roles intersect. These six models represent the various multi-disciplinary and multitheoretical lenses through which issues related to work and family have been and are currently examined.
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They also illustrate the multiple and complex links between work and family spheres. Most information written historically on work and family discusses issues related to the Western world or industrialized countries.
Trends and Directions in Sexuality Research at the Start of the Twenty-First Century
In the preindustrial period of England and the United States , for example, the family was the unit of production. Men, women, and children worked in the home and in the fields. Life was characterized by an interweaving of the husband and wife's involvement with domestic life and with a productive work life. There existed an integration of work and family with the husband, wife, and children all working in the home Coontz ; Hutter With the Industrial Revolution , work was now separated from the economy.
For men, it meant involvement in the outside world and in the expanding marketplace; for women, it increasingly meant confinement within the home. Legislation was introduced restricting employment hours for women and children, thus restricting women's employment opportunities and resulted in married women's staying at home to care for their children.
This ideology of women's confinement to the home originated in the middle and upper classes and is clearly a concept originating in Western family ideology that eventually extended to the working classes also, despite the fact that it ran counter to the economic needs of the family. The idea that work outside the home for married women was a "misfortune and a disgrace" Oakley , p. Nevertheless, although this ideology existed, families were still heavily dependent on the contributions of wives and children to the family budget and in many countries, such as Belgium and Spain, wives were gainfully employed Janssens Historical events, such as pressures of wartime economies, have led to the mass hiring of women in the labor force, causing a temporary relaxation of the gender divide.
Trends and Directions in Sexuality Research at the Start of the Twenty-First Century – Items
For example, the popular U. However, as soon as the men came home after World War II , the gender divide was restored. West Germany paralleled the United States in this phenomenon. In contrast, the East German government expected the war widows to replace the male breadwinner by seeking full-time employment von Oertzen and Rietzschel Changes that occurred in the United States from the s to the s include an increase in married women with children in the labor force, a slight decrease in men in the labor force, a greater incidence of early retirement, a continued decline in real earnings, the elimination of many formerly well-paying jobs, wage concessions in several unionized industries, and the establishment of a two-tier wage system that offers lower wages and slower pay increases to new entrants into the labor market.
Cyclical unemployment and permanent job loss due to takeovers, plant closings, and layoffs also have increased. Traditionally male jobs e.
Many of the trends listed here have also occurred in European countries such as England and Greece Brannen Family and work are undergoing immense transformation as the twenty-first century begins. Today, alterations in the world economy are now affecting "every aspect of the employment scene—the work, the workers, the employers, and the typical career sequence" Berger , p. In our postindustrial society, "the global economy is characterized by an advancing communications technology that dictates 'connectedness,' not only among nations, but also among individuals and within our overall social institutions" Secret, Sprang, and Bradford , p.
Andrew E. Scharlach, PhD
In the poorest regions of the world, the shift is from agriculture to industry, as multinational corporations move in to take advantage of cheap labor Berger Developing nations meanwhile are shifting from industry-based economies to information and service industries. As a result of all this change, certain job categories are appearing or disappearing, seemingly overnight; educational requirements for work are shifting every few years; and corporate strategies such as downsizing and outsourcing are becoming standard practices.
Consequently the work path for individuals is much less predictable and secure than it once was, with a widening employment and income gap between those with knowledge and those without it Berger Technological change has also affected work and family. The growing use of computers, pagers, and cellular telephones, for example, meant that some employees could perform their work almost anywhere. Thus, home businesses and teleworking opportunities have expanded worldwide.
Although more U. The number of contingent workers, those holding jobs without long-term contracts, grew in both the United States as well as European nations Drew and Emerek ; Rogers The beginning of the twenty-first century found almost half the civilian labor force in developed nations to be female: 40 percent in Japan, 45 percent in Canada and England, 46 percent in the United States, and 49 percent in Sweden U.
Bureau of Labor Statistics In , almost 64 million women in the United States were employed in the civilian labor force and more than 60 percent of adult women were employed. In comparison, 75 percent of adult men were employed U. Bureau of the Census , Table Historically, African-American women have had higher labor force participation rates than white or Hispanic women. Between and , however, African-American and white women had virtually identical rates—approximately 59 percent.
Hispanic women participated at a rate of about 53 percent. Since that time, African-American women have edged ahead to a participation rate of White, Asian and Pacific Islander women, and Hispanic women participated at The labor force participation rate for Cuban women was In examining labor force participation of women ages fifteen to sixty-four in developing countries in , notable differences were found around the world.
In Northern Africa , 37 percent of women ages fifteen to sixty-four participated in the labor force in ; in Central America and Western, 42 percent of women ages fifteen to sixty-four participated in the labor force in ; in South America , 46 percent of women ages fifteen to sixty-four participated in the labor force in ; in South Central Asia , 47 percent of women ages fifteen to sixty-four participated in the labor force in ; in the Caribbean, 54 percent of women ages fifteen to sixty-four participated in the labor force in ; and in Western Africa, 58 percent of women ages fifteen to sixty-four participated in the labor force in Between and , the percentage of married women in the United States labor force almost doubled—from 32 percent to 62 percent.
During that same period, the number of employed married women between twenty-five and thirty-four years of age the ages during which women are most likely to bear children rose from 29 to 72 percent. Over 70 percent of married women with children were in the labor force in , including 78 percent of those with children six to seventeen years of age, and 64 percent of those with children age six or younger U.
In countries such as Belgium, France, Portugal, and Ireland, female economic activity peaks for women in their mid-twenties, and then falls as women leave the labor force to begin raising a family, whereas in Sweden and Finland rates continually increase for women until their fifties Hantrais France has one of the highest female participation in the labor force rates for mothers, as well as one of the highest birth rates in the European Union Fagnani By , nearly three-quarters of all divorced mothers also were involved in the U.
The experience of women in the U. Antecedents and outcomes of work family conflict: Testing a model of the work family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology , 77, Work-family conflict and employee psychiatric disorders: The national comorbidity survey. Journal of Applied Psychology , 85, Geiger, K Business Link , 4, Goff, S. Personnel Psychology , 43, Grandey, A. The conservation of resources model applied to work family conflict and strain.
Journal of Vocational Behavior , 54, Greenhaus, J. Career management. Hammer, L. Work-family conflict and work-related behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology , 17, Hoyle, R. Writing about structural equation models. Hoyle Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Judge, T. Personality and job satisfaction: The mediating role of job characteristics.
Job and life attitudes of male executives. Journal of Applied Psychology , 79, Judiesch, M.
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Left behind? The impact of leaves of absence on managers' career success. Academy of Management Journal , 42, Kline, R. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: The Guilford Press. Kopelman, R.
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A model of work, family, and interrole conflict: A construct validation study. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance , 32, Kossek, E.