Ferdinand II, Counter-Reformation Emperor, 1578-1637
In the same year, Ferdinand was recognized by the Bohemian Diet as king of Bohemia and in was elected king of Hungary. In , however, the largely Protestant diet of Bohemia deposed him, electing Frederick V , elector of the Palatinate, as their king. Though elected Holy Roman emperor on August 28, , Ferdinand was able to maintain himself only with support from Spain, Poland, and various German princes. Aided by Maximilian I , duke of Bavaria, his troops annihilated the rebel army on the White Mountain, near Prague , on November 8, He confiscated the estates of the rebel magnates, reduced the Diet to impotence by a new constituent ordinance , and forcibly catholicized Bohemia.
The Protestants of Upper and Lower Austria were subjected to compulsory conversion. In addition, with the help of Spain and the league of Catholic princes of Germany , and through the victories of his generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein , he gained important successes over his German opponents and the king of Denmark. Until then the war largely had been confined to Germany, but Swedish and, later on, French intervention turned it into a European conflict.
Their opposition forced Ferdinand in to dismiss Wallenstein, the mainstay of his power. The victorious advance of the Swedish army, however, made the emperor recall Wallenstein. Eventually, for reasons of state, Ferdinand reluctantly gave his consent to a second dismissal and the assassination of Wallenstein, who had treacherously entered into negotiations with the enemy Ferdinand II , who had been married to his second wife, Eleonora Gonzaga of Mantua, since , died in Vienna in In the prime of his life Ferdinand was described as a blue-eyed, somewhat corpulent, middle-sized man who wore Spanish court dress.
A good-natured, benevolent , affable monarch, he was imbued with the belief in the splendour of the imperial crown and the greatness of his dynasty. Besides German he spoke Italian, French, and Spanish, was fond of music, and liked reading religious books, but his passion was hunting. Don't have an account? American Historical Association members Sign in via society site. Sign in via your Institution Sign in.
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Gillian M. In This Issue. Beth Lew-Williams. A period of minor operations followed, perhaps because of Wallenstein's ambiguous conduct, which ended with his assassination in The Swedish army was substantially weakened, and the fear that the power of the Habsburgs would become overwhelming caused France, led by Louis XIII of France and Cardinal Richelieu , to enter the war on the Protestant side.
In Ferdinand signed his last important act, the Peace of Prague , yet this did not end the war. Ferdinand died in , leaving to his son Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor , an empire still engulfed in a war and whose fortunes seemed to be increasingly chaotic.
Rev. of Ferdinand II, Counter-Reformation Emperor, 1578-1637, by Robert Bireley.
Ferdinand II was buried in his Mausoleum in Graz. His heart was interred in the Herzgruft heart crypt of the Augustinian Church, Vienna. They had seven children:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Kipper und Wipper. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor  8. Mary of Burgundy  4. Ferdinand II of Aragon  9. Isabella I of Castile  2. Charles II of Austria Casimir IV Jagiellon  Elisabeth of Austria  5. Gaston de Foix, Count of Candale  Catherine of Foix  1.
Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria  William IV, Duke of Bavaria  Kunigunde of Austria  6. Albert V, Duke of Bavaria  Philip I, Margrave of Baden  Marie of Baden-Sponheim  Elisabeth of the Palatinate  3. Maria Anna of Bavaria Anna of Austria  Cambridge University Press. Bireley, Robert Atlantisz Publishing House. MacCulloch, Diarmaid The Reformation: A History.
A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University. Parker, Geoffrey Editor The Thirty Years' War 2nd ed. Routledge published 23 January Whaley, Joachim Oxford University Press.
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Wilson, Peter Hamish House of Habsburg. Ferdinand II. Maria Anna of Bavaria Eleonora Gonzaga.
Armorial of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand III. Leopold I. Joseph I. Charles VI. Holy Roman Emperors. Book Category. Monarchs of Bohemia.
Thirty Years of War
Henry the Carinthian Rudolph I. Albert Interregnum Ladislaus the Posthumous. George Matthias Corvinus 3. Vladislaus II Louis.
Encyclopædia Britannica/Ferdinand II. (emperor) - Wikisource, the free online library
Monarchs of Germany. Napoleon I. Francis I Ferdinand I. Archduke John of Austria Imperial Regent.