The Sea Floor: An Introduction to Marine Geology
Appropriate references to parts of course textbooks and introductory journal references are provided at each lecture. A follow on assessment will incorporate regional literature to construct a geological history.
Instructions for accessing this material will be given during the course. A wide range of support can be provided for those students who have further or specific learning and teaching needs. Contact hours: 27 Non-contact hours: Students are responsible for meeting the cost of essential textbooks, and of producing such essays, assignments, laboratory reports and dissertations as are required to fulfil the academic requirements for each programme of study.
Undergraduate Postgraduate taught Postgraduate research Foundation Years Pre-sessional English language courses How to apply Clearing Free online learning Continuing professional development Prospectuses. Module Overview This course will cover the formation of ocean basins; the role of mid-ocean ridges in basin scale processes; structure and geological processes at continental margins; sedimentary processes within and on the boundaries of ocean basins; and the past history and impact of sea level change. Aims and Objectives Learning Outcomes Knowledge and Understanding Having successfully completed this module, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of: Have a solid grounding in marine geology.
Understand the framework provided by Plate Tectonics. Be able to describe sediments found in different water depths and settings, and understand the sedimentary processes leading to their deposition.
The Sea Floor: An Introduction to Marine Geology
Be able to describe the main geological and geophysical techniques for observing the seabed and sub-seabed. Berger; Springer, Heidelberg; ; pp. The issue of a third edition testifies to the popularity of this very readable account of the geological processes that are active in shaping the sea floor and in influencing events in the deep sea and shelf seas. The text and figures remain essentially unchanged from the extensively revised and updated second edition reviewed in Vol. This is a book that deserves to continue to attract a wide range of readers and is good value at a price in DM that remains unchanged from that of the edition.
Oxygen isotope records of planktonic and benthic foraminifera. The impact of the development of the stable isotope proxy on paleoceanography was substantial. On the assumption that sedimentation rates were constant throughout the entire Bruhnes epoch, the oscillations in the stable isotopes became the paleoclimate equivalent of the magnetic reversals for plate tectonics. The pattern could be used for global correlation.
The sea floor. An introduction to marine geology
But unlike the magnetic reversal signal, which defies prediction and is likely an excellent example of chaos, there was a pattern to the variations in the oxygen isotopes. In , Hays at Lamont, working with Imbrie at Brown and Shackleton, applied spectral techniques to the signals from cores that were thought to be fairly well dated such that the isotopic signal as a function of depth could be accurately converted to a time series. The result was the identification of spectral peaks that matched the predictions of the Milankovitch hypothesis Figure 4. According to this theory, variations in Earth' s orbital parameters eccentricity, tilt, and precession of the equinoxes caused variations in solar insolation that resulted in changes in climate.
Spectra of climate variations in sub-antarctic piston cores as inferred from variations in oxygen isotopes. Prominent spectral peaks, labeled a, b, and c, correspond to the predicted periods of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession of the Earth's orbit. Although there was some cause to question how well core depth had been converted to time, the strength of the spectral peaks and the repeatability of the pattern won many converts—so much so that now cores with poor age control are assigned dates by assuming that the isotopic peaks and troughs should correspond in time to what is predicted by the Milankovitch hypothesis "orbital tuning".
Not all is completely understood, however. For example, northern and southern hemispheres would be predicted tc be out of phase for the precession period, but they are not. Overall, phase relationships demonstrate that regional insolation is not important.
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The net effect on the whole globe ,with its unequal distribution of continents and oceans must be taken into account. In addition, the strength of the spectral peaks is not consistent with the hypothesis that it is variations in solar insolation that leads to ice volume variations, and the spectral amplitudes are not stationary in time. Despite these remaining questions, the deep sea has provided a well-calibrated record of Earth's natural climate changes that can be used to help assess the future impact of man's activities.
Sea-surface temperatures for northern hemisphere summer 18, years ago as determined by climate proxies mapped by the CLIMAP project. Black dots show the locations of cores used to determine paleoclimate. The universal answer was that the changeover occurred in the mid-to lates.
And yet the numbers from Lamont Figure 6 and Scripps in no way support this impression. Even in the early s as far back as, it seems, anyone bothered to keep records , NSF was providing more dollars to the oceanographic institutions than ONR. Why was the impression just the opposite?
Total funds granted top , number of grants middle , and average size of grant bottom for NSF versus ONR awards given to Lamont, Similar trends are seen in data from Scripps, but Lamont numbers are used here since they can reasonably be more Deborah Day, the Scripps archivist, suggested a possible answer to this question. Rather, the community found this venture capital at ONR, from industry, and from the discretionary funds of institute directors. NSF was quick to support the successful venture, and make them pay off. One place in which NSF clearly set a policy direction different from that of ONR was in the encouragement of international collaborations.
This sort of attitude would have been uncharacteristic for an agency like ONR responsible for maintaining a competitive advantage in U. Because this is the topic of another paper see paper by Winterer, this volume , I mention here a few of the highlights. DSDP sampled the basal sediments in Leg 3 along a magnetic-profile in the South Atlantic that established beyond a shadow of a doubt that the seafloor just beneath was indeed the age predicted by the Vine-Matthews hypothesis. The ocean drilling program developed the hydraulic piston corer that became the mainstay for sampling thick, continuous sequences in areas of high sedimentation rate in order to investigate climate change on orbital and suborbital time scales.
DSDP and its successors established repositories for logging data and cores and thick volumes of results.
The Sea Floor: An Introduction to Marine Geology - Eugen Seibold, Wolfgang H. Berger - Google книги
It set the standard for international scientific cooperation and became the vehicle for exporting American science and our scientific system to the rest of the world. The plate tectonic revolution led to an explosion in the number of young graduate students studying marine geology and geophysics.
At first, in the late s and early s, many of the most promising researchers were retained by their Ph. Comparison of the number of different chief scientists from Lamont versus other institutions sailing on Lamont's research ships.
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The establishment of UNOLS went a long way towards opening up access to ship time to researchers from nonoceanographic institutions. This change was inevitable and brought a much larger talent pool to the table to compete for funding and ship time. The system became more open and more accountable. Cruises were more carefully planned, and no funds were wasted taking observations unnecessary to test the hypothesis at hand. But much was lost along the way as well. Without omnibus grants in the hands of the leaders of oceanographic institutions, there was no opportunity to put together larger projects that cut across disciplines by a few people with great vision.
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With less institutional funding, there was no incentive to work with colleagues at one's own institution as opposed to those across the country. The institutions became less cohesive. Since researchers from one oceanographic institution were likely to be scheduled for ship time on another institution's vessel, less attention was paid to maintaining and improving the home institution's assets. With more PIs competing for the funding pool, the success rate dropped, such that researchers were writing more proposals to raise the same amount of research funds.
The reconnaissance sampling of the geology and geophysics of the oceans had already been completed, and it was time for more focused hypothesis testing in targeted areas, the type of research for which NSF funding is ideally suited. Initiatives such as the Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments RIDGE , provided a mechanism to tackle bigger science questions in a systematic way, while still maintaining the openness of the system and the advantages of peer review.
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This initiative has been immensely successful by any measure, integrating mid-ocean-ridge-related research throughout the oceans and across the disciplines of geology, geophysics, chemistry, and biology. The down side is that RIDGE has been so very successful in terms of discoveries and in capturing the attention of the community that it is in danger of reducing the breadth in interests for the RIDGE generation of students.